JEFAS (antes Cuadernos de Difusión) Vol. 13 Nº 24 (2008)

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    Competitividad sostenible de la pequeña empresa: un modelo de promoción de capacidades endógenas para promover ventajas competitivas sostenibles y alta productividad
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Vargas, Braulio; Del Castillo, Carlos
    In the past three decades, the competitiveness and productivity of the small enterprise have been favored by the government, business action and technical cooperation, which have made signifi cant contributions regarding promotion, development and provision of technical assistance. In the developing economies of the Asia Pacifi c region, these efforts are explained by the fact that the small enterprise contributes without question, to job generation, local economic dynamics, collective effi ciency of business network, and economic growth. In the economies of the region, most contributions have been channeled through public policies with a focus on capacity building. Nevertheless, according to preliminary studies in the main business clusters in Peru, the government’s promotion actions have not had a steady effect in competitiveness and productivity. Evidence suggests that business development services have a limited effect as they depend solely on external interventions. In contrast, successful entrepreneurship relies more on endogenous capacities. This article introduces a framework of promotion of the productivity and sustained competitiveness in the small enterprise, laying stress on endogenous capacities and an effi cient arrangement of external interventions.
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    Developing economies and the Asia-Pacific economic cooperation forum-APEC: intrabloc trade and attraction of foreign direct investment from region
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Rodríguez, Christian
    Since one of the main goals of the APEC is to facilitate the international trade and investments among its members, it is said that taking over APEC presidency (as Peru in 2008), will contribute to foster trade and attract investments from member economies. But, is there any pattern which allows quantifying the benefi ts resulting from this kind of commitment? After evaluating the trade statistics of APEC developing economies ever since the creation of the Forum in 1989, it can be inferred that presiding APEC does not guarantee an increase in its trade with the rest of APEC economies. Right after hosting the summit, its imports grow higher compared with its exports, but there is not any conclusive information on the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI). Nevertheless, even though the growth of trade and FDI attraction from APEC other member economies does not rely exclusively on taking over the Forum’s Presidency, this commitment is a unique opportunity to promote trade with the planet’s most important economic bloc.
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    International law and the role of APEC in the gobernance of economic cooperation within the Asia Pacific region
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Davidson, Paul J.
    The cumbersome administrative process of trading in the Asia Pacifi c region has lead to propose the creation of a Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacifi c Region (FTAAP), as part of the governance structure. In this respect, the Asia Pacifi c Economic Cooperation (APEC) would play a major role regarding the setting of guidelines for economic cooperation and a free and open approach to investments. It is also provided that APEC’s legal framework may be applied to the economic activities which have not been regulated by other international agreements, offering advantages as adapting to the real conditions of each state and the standardization of the already existing regulations. However, this non-binding framework, (soft law), does not foreclose, but complements the OMC’s binding legal framework (hard law).
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    ¿Los nuevos cooperantes? relación entre migración remesas y el potencial de los migrantes
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Gómez-Schlaikier, Sigrid
    The target of a 38,5% of immigrants in the world is one of the APEC economies. This signifi cant figure should be deeply examined to fi nd out why these destinations are chosen, how immigrants contribute to these economies, how they are benefited when they migrate and how they contribute to their country of origin, such as Peru. This research was conducted on the basis of diverse data about emigration, immigration, remittances and, urban and rural population of the APEC member countries. The international data basically relies on the World Bank reports, while the Peruvian data is based on the information released by the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI). The study seeks to provide new perspectives and to fill out gaps regarding migration and remittances. It also proposes diverse options such as immigration quotas and working visa lotteries in a decentralized manner among APEC economies, and defines the concept of migrant not only as a remittance sender, but also as a potential new aid worker when he returns to his country of origin.
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    Impacto del sistema general de preferencias sobre los productos agroindustriales y pesqueros exportados por el Perú a Japón(1996-2005)
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Tomida Pérez, Mitsuko
    This paper studies how Peru was benefited from Japan’s Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) between 1996 and 2005. For this purpose we are including an econometric model which proves the effects of Japan’s GDP the variation in the wholesale price index in Peru the GSP ratio and the trade indicator on non-traditional exports between both countries. This research is mainly focused on analyzing the behavior of agro-industrial and fi shery products benefited from the GSP through statistic charts displaying the trends in non-traditional trade. A survey was conducted among to the sixty largest exporters to Japan to determine the awareness and spreading of this tariff benefit system among Peruvian exporters of non-traditional products. To enhance this paper we provide a matrix of potentials with a classification of Peruvian products exported to Japan in order to identify those that Peru might export according to demand.
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    The flow of peoples: international migration as a revolutionary force
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Chesnais, Jean-Claude
    History shows that migration usually moves from areas where population is growing fast to regions where this increase is slower. At present immigration from poor regions to richer coun tries outstrips emigration from developed countries. A century ago in Europe and now in the poorest countries migration has relieved tensions bred by declining mortality and accelerating popula tion growth. The map of international migration changes from decade to decade as each country's demographic transition matures. Although historical migration flows still continue this will not lead to a demographic explosion as fertility rates have declined significantly and aging population increases all over the world. World population is estimated to remain stagnant at around 8 thousand million before it decreases slowly through this century. Thus migration raises the challenge of a global multiethnic society.
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    Comercio potencial de servicios del Perú con el Asia Pacífico
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2008-06-30) Carazas, Pedro Miguel
    Services account for 47% of global output and, as per several studies conducted, the liberalization of their trade brings more advantages than trade in goods. Despite of this fact, there has been little research on the subject, and the definition of services has remained controversial. Peru sticks to global trend, as services represent 65% of GDP and 75% of EAP. Moreover, the development of tertiary sector is essential to attain a hub position. This paper is aimed at identifying the potential trade in services with Asia Pacific, based on trade and liberalization indicators –this region accounts for nearly 18% of current world trade–. It considers the commercial behavior of Peru, as well as that of Chile and Colombia, which are regarded as competitors in their condition of «access platform» to the Andean sub region. It is concluded that there are many possibilities to intensify relations with Asia Pacific and policy recommendations that should be taken into account by the Peruvian foreign policy are provided.