JEFAS (antes Cuadernos de Difusión) Vol. 14 Nº 26 (2009)

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    Tangibilización del espíritu emprendedor: desarrollo de franquicias en el sector de la pequeña y microempresa
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Gastañaduy Benel, Alfonso
    When talking about economic development in emerging countries, it is generally stressed the role of micro and small enterpri-ses (MSE), both for its ability to generate employment and for being the manifestation of the entrepreneurial spirit of its mana-gers. For them is clearing the way and create practical options to maximize the results of their work. It is with this philosophy that this document raises the importance of the corporate franchises system as a mean to optimize the performance of MSE. And how can we have evidence of such optimization? There can be many ways, but the concept that is becoming more important is how to make tangible the corporate work, which means how to make «touchable» the entrepreneurial spirit, the very critical resource for managing the MSE. This is the message: the franchises make tangible the entrepreneurship spirit of the MSE.
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    Análisis psicosocial de la violencia: entre el conflicto y el desarrollo social
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Malvaceda Espinoza, Eli L.
    Following recent events in our country, with the aim of improving the study and prevention of conflicts for a better economic and social development that contributes to the quality of life and mental health of individuals, this article begins by exploring the concepts of violence and aggression and outlines the conceptual distinction between them, also delves into issues such as intentionality and social value, basic budgets and components as the formal structure of the act, personal equation, the context enabler and the ideological background in the development of violence. Follows the path initiated in 1989 by Ignacio Martín-Baró, adapting to the Peruvian case.
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    El Indice de la Ventaja Comparativa Revelada (VCR) entre el Perú y los principales exportadores del mundo: el caso de la Región Lambayeque
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Heredia Pérez, Jorge; Huarachi Chávez, Jorge
    This paper presents and applies a conceptual framework to regional Competitiveness using the Index of revealed competitiveness introduced by Balassa in 1965 for the Lambayeque Region in the northern part of Peru with the end to determine the products more competitive of this region. In the first part of the article the competitiveness review is presented from the Porter approach to Systemic Competitiveness. The advantage of this method is to identify the competitiveness of the regional products and services as a function of the import and export values of the country in contrast with the same values of the other countries in the world. The FAOSTAT data is used for that purpose. The results shown that the crop most competitive are the avocados, the bananas, mangoes, asparagus, dry chilies and coffee. Nevertheless when these products are compare with others countries such as Chile and Brazil only mangoes and asparagus are strongly competitive. However both products are considered commodities rather than value added products and its competitiveness lies in comparative advantage such as clime and soil.
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    Pronósticos bayesianos usando simulación estocástica*
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Muñoz Negrón, David F.
    In this article, we present a general framework to construct forecasts using simulation. This framework allows us to incorporate available data into a forecasting model in order to assess parameter uncertainty through a posterior distribution, which is then used to estimate a point forecast in the form of a conditional (given the data) expectation. The uncertainty on the point forecast is assessed through the estimation of a conditional variance and a prediction interval. We discuss how to construct asymptotic confidence intervals to assess the estimation error for the estimators obtained using simulation. We illustrate how this approach is consistent with Bayesian forecasting by presenting two examples, and experimental results that confirm our analytical results are discussed.
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    La competencia intercultural como llave para el desarrollo del Perú
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Gómez-Schlaikier, Sigrid
    The term «intercultural competence» originally referred to the conscious skills and attitudes that the student and everyone involved in teaching a foreign language had to develop to understand the sociocultural context and decode messages from the language they were teaching-learning, meaning is no longer exclusive to this area. This article is about how the implemen-tation of intercultural competence has become very important in international relations, international cooperation, education and business; it allows optimizing the communication between different countries and cultures. Also, focus on its application to the national situation. Finally, gives an example of what can be a good practice of «intercultural competence» with the Chinese culture as a reference.
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    La cultura en las organizaciones: un fenómeno central en el saber administrativo
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Podestá, Paola
    This article is the result of empirical and bibliographical research processes about organizational culture. It relates some relevant aspects that, from the traditional perspective under which this concept has been understood, may be contrasted with more critical ones, such as that proposed by the Canadian school to which some of the authors researched belong. Likewise, this article may be considered a complement to one previously published by the author, also mentioned in the text.
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    El proceso de la gestión y el desempeño organizacional: una aproximación a la nueva gestión pública desde el ámbito de los gobiernos locales
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2009-06-30) Del Castillo, Carlos; Vargas, Braulio
    The measurement of organizational performance, in particular the search for a model that brings the management process together with the expected results through strategies, has been one of the most important issues in the Administration in recent decades. Recently, efforts have been made to adapt to public sector organizations approaches and technologies originally developed for businesses, especially in countries such as Peru, seeking to influence governments’ ability to produce results. However, the concrete evidence of local government suggests that the implementation of management processes in this area reduces its chances of success because of the highly structured nature of management, the rigidity of the organizational design and the government regulation itself. This article argues that the performance improvement comes from reconciling the dimensions of the strategy and the structure. On this basis, there is a tool to assess organizational performance in terms of make flexible the functional structure and to adapt it towards logic of process management. In this way the strategy may gain intensity, causing the alignment of processes and create visible results of these, allowing to evaluate the performance of the areas, managers and ultimately, the organization.