JEFAS (antes Cuadernos de Difusión) Vol. 12 Nº 23 (2007)

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    Ambiente y TLC: el pacto de gobernabilidad
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Rosell, Mónica
    This paper aims at providing, from a sustainable development perspective, an idea about the direction our country will take once the US-Peru FTA is enforced, regarding particularly the environmental, trade and investment areas. The signing of the FTA has led Peru to leave behind a view of the environment vision as a moral and ethical (some times marginal) component of economic relations, to turn it into a regulatory and mandatory consideration overlapping trade and investment to such an extent that failure to comply may lead to sanctions as severe as those pertaining to other matters related to for instance access to or permanence in a given market. Even so, it is worthwhile mentioning that the FTA is only an initial component of a more complex and broad multilateral scenario that recognizes in the environment an essential element of international economic relations.
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    Método de las relaciones casuales para la planificación del desarrollo sostenible: aplicación en Pulpochoque
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Solano, David
    The barrires to a society´s sustainable development are typically the result of many problem-cause interactions, which may be of an economic, socio-cultural, technological or political nature. In order to fi nd proper solutions, it is important to differentiate between problem-cause and problemresult relations; only with this method will it be possible to ensure sustainability. The Cause Relation Method is a tool that identifi es causes and consequences starting with the relations between problems. This method may be used to generate participatory decisions that foster the integrated action of a community to address the constraints to its development.
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    Recursos actuales y necesidades futuras: el caso de Santiaguito
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Del Castillo, Carlos
    Santiaguito is a district in Peru’s northern Andes. In this paper we identify a number of opportunities to channel efforts towards its development. However, and as it is often the case, only the most explicit and obvious variables guide the development planning and management cycle. A non factual prospective analysis exercise allows to imagine a future situation that can be totally different from the originally proposed long-term vision. The available information is used with certain diagnosis and planning tools and then the outcome is compared with reality and hypothesis for the future.
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    Modelos de inversión social para empresas mineras: experiencias y propuestas
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Mogrovejo Álvarez, Mirella; Pimentel Bernal, Renato; Zúñiga Huamai, Alfredo
    Peru is experiencing a boom through growing mine operations and projects. This has created expectations among the benefi ts that activity may create for the mines’ neighboring communities. Although in most cases results have not been very encouraging, this paper seeks to demonstrate whatever progress has been made in the mining companies’ social management, and the scope of their proposals for improvement by presenting and comparing successful social investment models used in Peru in recent years. It also examines the issue of the mining industry’s voluntary contributions, social contributions and social trust funds, and explains how the money is allocated.
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    Desarrollo, sostenibilidad y capacidades: una trilogía indesligable
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Solano, David
    The difference between economic growth and development has been debated for long. Classical economists hold that the most important challenge for a country was to create wealth. However, as time goes by, other important and complementary concepts have arisen such as development, sustainable development and social capital, stressing out the need for creating human, institutional and natural capacities to generate lasting well-being. Capacities do not come besides investment; we need to create them. However, some examples show that many public and private decision-makers in Peru do not take into account such need; they prioritize economic capacities and neglect social, environmental and institutional ones. Development is not be possible without capacity building, and once the proper capacities are built may sustainable development be created.
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    Project System, un modelo de gestión para construir el desarrollo sostenible
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Dejo, Federico
    This paper shows the advantages of the Scorecard Project System as a computer integrated tool to simplify, speed up and streamline the design and monitoring of diagnosis studies, plans and projects included in a strategic view to reach sustainable development. The paper shows the characteristics and advantages of each such tool and establishes their sequence in the feedback cycle for territorial management, whether peasant communities, local governments, regional governments of companies with a social responsibility mission.
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    La construcción del desarrollo desde los gobiernos subnacionales: una visión desde la perspectiva de la gestión ambiental descentralizada
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-06-30) Dios Alemán, Eduardo
    The transition of the Peruvian political system to decentralization has uncovered a number of factors that condition national development although by bringing the State closer to the people, the contrary should be expected. These elements underlie the existing culture of government and the ordinary citizen’s so that despite specifi c opportunities to foster development, they are not revealed in human development indicators but only on economic indicators. One of these elements is the natural reaction to changes in the power structure existing inside the centralist system that have been revealed by the slow transfer of competencies from the central to the sub-national governments. Another such element is the limited ability of sub-national governments that fail to respond to the challenge of demonstrating better competencies to address the citizens’ demands.
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    La administración del desarrollo sostenible en el contexto de la economía social de mercado
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) Vera, José Carlos
    The theory of market social economy appears neatly when dealing with environmental conservation and the search for the wellbeing of the underprivileged. These concepts have been used in various countries and today it is possible to see countries that carefully watch over their environment and have achieved signifi cant social balance. Peru has not been alien to environmental and social concepts and for more than four decades has establishes organizations, designed policies and enacted laws to look at these issues. However, the outcomes have been limited. Among the reasons that explain the ineffectiveness of such regulations and institutions perhaps among the most important are the lack of effective oversight and control over economic agents, and an ineffi cient design of the ways to attain goals through regulations and institutions. For that reason, this paper proposes policy options to correct market outcomes and a way to build institutions that will allow to accomplish the desired goals.
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    La necesidad de incorporar el cambio climático en las políticas de desarrollo
    (Universidad ESAN. ESAN Ediciones, 2007-12-30) García Vargas, Julio
    Climate change is considered the most important global threat facing the human race in this century. Due to the excessive emission of greenhouse gases, the global average temperature is increasing thus altering climate systems and raising the sea level. Although developing countries do not contribute signifi cantly to these emissions, they suffer most of their effects. Peru is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change because most of its resources and productive factors such as fi shing, agriculture and transport are climate sensitive. Combined with the challenge and opportunity of ensuring sustainable development in a complex territory in terms of land and population, this vulnerability forces us to include considerations in national policies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters and climate change adaptation. We now have the Hyogo Framework for Action approved by 168 countries.